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causes of automobile accidents

These two assignments are for my Research and Methods class. I need assistance with completing the assignments by Friday.(1) Assignments: Read the following articles on Needs Assessment and Program Evaluation: Astramovich, R.L. (2011). Needs assessment: A key evaluation tool for professional counselors. Ideas and Research You Can Use: VISTAS 2011. Assessment: The article by Astramovich (2011) introduces the concept of a Needs Assessment and outlines a Four Stage process for conducting a Needs Assessment. Use the article and the following case study to complete this assignment: Using your own words, state the purpose of a Needs Assessment (3-5 sentences) Using the Four States of a Counseling Needs Assessment (from the article), write a plan to conduct a needs assessment for the following Case Study situation: Case Study: You work at a community counseling center in an urban area of a mid-sized city. The board of directors is considering whether they need to hire more addictions counselors to serve the surrounding community. You have been charged with doing a Needs Assessment to help them make the decision. Apply the Four Stages of a Counseling Needs Assessment (from the article) to the Case Study. Briefly write out what you would do in each stage to complete the task assigned in the Case Study. (approx 2-5 sentences for each section) Stage One: Stage Two: Stage Three: Stage Four: Assignment:Driving around in a 4,000-pound automobile is a dangerous thing. Motor vehicle accidents are among the leading preventable causes of death in the United States every year. Distraction is one of the most common causes of automobile accidents, and talking to another person is a very common distraction.In an effort to observe the impact of conversation on driving, Drews, Pasupathi, and Strayer (2008) conducted a study using a driving simulator that tracks errors committed by drivers. The researchers varied the type of conversation. In one condition, participants had a conversation with a passenger; in another condition, participants talked on a cell phone. There was also a no conversation, control condition. As you would expect, having any conversation resulted in more driving errors. However, the number of driving errors was highest in the cell phone condition.Read this article: Drews, F., Pasupathi, M., & Strayer, D. (2008). Passenger and cell phone conversations in simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 392-400. doi: 10.1037/a0013119Assessment: Answer the following questions about the study: Describe how well you think the sample of participants in this study generalizes to other groups of people (age groups, life stage, geographic areas, etc) Do you think that the findings from this study would generalize to other cultures? Do you think that samples of college students in Mexico, Italy, and Germany would generate similar results? Why or why not? Evaluate the internal validity of this study. (explain) Evaluate the external validity of this study. (explain)

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